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237 CHAPTER VIII NEO-ARISTOCRACY STRESSFUL transition is the key-note of our time. Unless all signs be at fault, we stand at one of those momentous crises in history when mankind moves from one well-marked epoch into another of widely different character. Such crucial periods are of supreme importance, because their outcome may determine man's course for many generations -- perhaps for many centuries. Transition spells struggle. And this is pre-eminently true of to-day. Historians of the distant future, appraising our times, may conclude that the Great War was merely a symptom -- an episode in a much vaster struggle of ideas and elemental forces which began long before the war, and lasted long after its close. Certainly such a conflict of ideas is to-day raging. Perhaps never in human annals have principles so dissimilar striven so fiercely for mastery of the coming age. Now in this conflict the ultimate antagonists appear to be biology and Bolshevism: Bolshevism, the incarnation of the atavistic past; biology, the hope of a progressive future. To call Bolshevism the incarnation of the past may sound paradoxical if we heed its claims to being ultramodern. But we have weighted those claims and have found them mere camouflage. What we have found is that Bolshevism, instead of being very new, is 238 very old, that it is the last of a long series of revolts by the unadaptable, inferior, and degenerate elements against civilizations which have irked them and which they have therefore wished to destroy. The only new thing about Bolshevism is its "rationalizing" of rebel- lious emotions into an exceedingly insidious and per- suasive philosophy of revolt which has not merely welded all the real social rebels, but has also deluded many mis- guided dupes, blind to what Bolshevism implies. Such is the champion of the old, primitive past: intrenched behind ancient errors like environmentalism and "natural equality," favored by the unrest of transition times, and reinforced by ever-multiplying swarms of degenerates and inferiors. Against this formidable adversary stands biology, the champion of the new. Biology is one of the finest fruits of the modern scientific spirit. Ripened by the patient labors of earnest seekers after truth, biology has now at- tained a splendid maturity. Forth from a thousand quiet laboratories and silent library alcoves have emerged discoveries which may completely alter human destiny. These discoveries constitute the new biological revelation -- the mightiest transformation of ideas that the world has ever seen. Here, indeed, is something new: the un- veiling of the mysterious life process, the discovery of the true path of progress, the placing in man's hands of the possibility of his own perfection by methods at once safe and sure. Such is the young science of applied bi- ology; or, as it is more generally termed, "Eugenics' -- the science of race betterment. Eugenics is, in fact, 239 evolving into a higher synthesis, drawing freely from other fields of knowledge like psychology and the social sciences, and thus fitting itself ever more completely for its exalted task. The fundamental change of both ideas and methods involved in the eugenic programme is at once apparent. Hitherto all political and social philosophies, however much they might differ among themselves have been agreed on certain principles: they have all believed that environment was of basic importance, and they have all proposed to improve mankind from without, by changing existing individuals through the action of various political and social agencies. Eugenics, on the other hand, believes that heredity is the basic factor, and plans to improve the race from within, by determining which existing in- dividuals shall, and shall not, produce succeeding gen- erations. This means the establishment of an improved social selection based upon biological considerations in- sted of, as hitherto, upon envirornmental considerations. Of course, this new selection would operate mainly through the old social and political agencies; but these would no longer be regarded as having specific virtue in themselves, and would be applied only in so far as they tended to better the race. Eugenics does not deny the effect of environment: on the contrary, it is precisely because of environment's bad effects upon the race that the science of eugenics has become such a vital necessity. What eugenics does say, however, is that environment however powerful, is an indirect, secondary factor; the direct, primary factor being heredity. Therefore, all 240 environmental influences should be considered with ref- erence to heredity, which should always be the funda- mental consideration. Thus a new criterion of policy and action is set up for every field of human activity, thereby involving a general revaluation of all values. The eugenic programme may be thus succinctly stated: "The problem of eugenics is to make such legal, social, and economic adjustments that (1) a larger proportion of superior persons will have children than at present; (2) that the average number of offspring of each superior person will be greater than at present; (3) that the most inferior persons will have no children; and (4) that other inferior persons will have fewer children than now." * Of course, eugenics does not propose to attain its ob- jective in a day or at a stroke. Inspired as it is by the scientific spirit, it believes in evolution, not revolution, and is thus committed to strictly evolutionary methods. Eugenics advocates no sudden leap into an untried Utopia; it desires to take no steps which have not been scien- tifically tested, and even then only when these have gained the approval of intelligent public opinion. Eu- genics does claim, however, that the momentous scien- tific discoveries of the past half century enable mankind to make a sound start in the process of race betterment. It further claims that such a start is imperative, because racial impoverishment is today going on so fast, and the forces of social disruption are growing so ominously, that delay threatens speedy disaster. The truth is that our race is facing the most acute crisis _____________________________________________ (*) Popenoe and Johnson, Applied Eugenics, p. v (Preface). 241 in its history. The very progress of science, which af- fords our best hope for the future, has thus far rather intensified the peril. Not only are all the traditional factors of race decadence operative, but new factors which may become powerful agents of race betterment are at present working mainly in the direction of racial decay, by speeding up both the social sterilization of superior stocks and the multiplication of inferiors. The result is a process of racial impoverishment, extremely rapid and ever accelerating. As the English biologist Whetham justly remarks: "The sense of social responsibility, the growth of moral consciousness, have matched a certain point among us -- a point that the student of sociology may well call a danger-point. If, accepting the burden of moulding the des- tinies of the race, we relieve nature of her office of discriminating between the fit and the unfit; if we under- take the protection of the weaker members of the com- munity; if we assume a corporate responsibility for the existence of all sorts and conditions of men; then, unless we are prepared to cast away the labors of our forefathers and to vanish with the empires of the past, we must ac- cept the office of deciding who are the fittest to prosper and to leave offspring, who are the persons whose moral and intellectual worth make it right that they and their descendants should be placed in a position of prominence in our midst and which are the families on whose up- bringing the time and money of society are best bestowed. We must acquiesce in the principle that the man who has made his five talents into ten shall profit by the skill 242 and energy he has shown, and that the man who has repeatedly failed to use his one talent shall have no further chance of wasting the corporate resources on himself and his descendants." (1) The effect of eugenic measures in permanently lighten- ing social burdens should appeal strongly to a world staggering under difficulties. This does not mean that established methods of reform should be neglected. But it must be remembered that such methods, affect- ing as most of them do merely the environment, require a constant (if not increasing) expenditure to be kept up. To quote Whetham again: "We must recognize an essential difference between the two methods. To put it briefly, it seems as though work done by heredity was work done once for all. The destruction of a tainted stock will leave a race eternally the better for its removal, the breeding-out of a good strain causes an irreparable loss; whereas improvements due to environment alone require a constant expenditure of energy to maintain them in existence. The one may be compared to an ac- tual gain of capital as far as the human race is concerned; the other involves a constant expenditure of income, perfectly justified as long as the increase in capital is maintained, but unjustifiable when capital must be drawn upon . . . . "Looking at our problem in this light, we see that there must be some relation between the average innate capacity of a nation and the effect likely to be produced ________________________________________________ (1) Whethan, "Decadence and Civilization,"Hibbert Journal, October, 1911. 243 by the expenditure of a given amount of energy on im- proving the environment. If a race falls back in its in- born qualities; if, owing to the efforts of philanthropists and the burdens of unsound taxation, more of the failures of civilization reach maturity and parenthood, and fewer competent persons are brought into existence to sup- port them, not only has the nation less energy to use for the maintenance and improvement of its social con- ditions, but such energy as is available will produce a correspondingly smaller effect. The old standard can be maintained, if at all, only by a policy of overspending leading to bankruptcy. We have, in fact, conditions in which retrogression set in and the environment will follow the heredity downhill." (1) Another point to be emphasized is the necessity for seeing how environmental measures affect racial interests, One of the gravest objections to environmentalism is its tendency to look at social and political reforms as ends in themselves. Scrutinized from the racial view- point, many of these reforms reveal racially harmfull consequences, which more than offset their beneficial as- pects and so require their modification in order to be desirable in the long run. Take the matter of poor relief, for example. Its necessity and desirability are generally acknowledged. Yet, however pathetic may be the ob- jects of public charity, the interests of society and the race alike require that poor relief carry with it one im- perative obligation: habitual paupers should be pre- vented from having children. Otherwise charity will _________________________________________________________ (1) Whetham, op. cit. 244 merely mean more paupers -- a result harmful and unfair both to the thrifty and capable members of society who pay the taxes and to society itself which ought to expend its taxes as far as possible for productive purposes. Again, take the question of the "social ladder." We have already observed how the ability of superior in- dividuals to rise easily in the social scale is characteristic of a progressive civilization. This is something which no well-informed and right-thinking man can deny. Ac- cordingly, the furtherance of the "career open to talent" is the constant solicitude of social reformers. And yet, here too, the racial view-point is needed. Suppose the "social ladder" were so perfected that virtually all ability could be detected and raised to its proper social level. The immediate result would be a tremendous display of talent and genius. But if this problem were concid- ered merely by itseIf, if no measures were devised to coun- teract the age-old tendency toward the social sterilization and elimination of successful superiors, that display of talent would be but the prelude to utter racial impoverish- ment and irreparable racial and cultural decline. As things now stand, it is the very imperfections of the "so- cial ladder" which retard racial impoverishment and minimize its disastrous consequences. Remembering the necessity for viewing all political and social projects in the light of racial consequences, let us now consider the eugenic programme itself. The problem of race betterment consists of two distinct phases: the multiplication of superior individuals and the elimination of inferiors -- in other words, the exact 245 reverse of what is to-day taking place. These two phases of race betterment clearly require totally different meth- od. The multiplication of superiors is a process of race building; the elimination of inferiors is a process of race cleansing. These processes are termed "Positive" and "Negative" eugenics, respectively. Although race building is naturally of more tran- sendent interest than race cleansing, it is the latter that we will first consider. Race cleansing is the obvious starting-point for race betterment. Here scientific knowl- edge is most advanced, the need for action most apparent, and public opinion best informed. In fact, a beginning has already been made. The segregation of the insane and feebleminded in public institutions is the first step in a campaign against degeneracy which should extend rapidly as society awakens to the full gravity of the situa- tion. We have already seen how much graver is the prob- 1em than has ordinarily been supposed. We now know that the so-called "degenerate classes" are not sharply marked off from the rest of the community, but are merely the most afflicted sufferers from taints which ex- tend broadcast through the general population. The "degenerate classes" are, in fact, merely the nucleus of that vast "outer fringe" of mental and physical unsound- ness visible all the way from the unemployable "casual laborer" right up to the "tainted genius." Degeneracy is thus a cancerous blight, constantly spreading, tainting and spoiling sound stocks, destroying race values, and increasing social burdens. In fact, de- generacy not only handicaps society but threatens its 246 very existence. Congenitally incapable of adjusting themselves to an advanced social order, the degenerate inevitably become its enemies -- particularly those "high- grade defectives" who are the natural fomenters of social unrest. Of course, the environmentalist argues that so- cial unrest is due to bad social conditions, but when we go into the matter more deeply we find that bad con- ditions are due largely to bad people. The mere presence of hordes of low-grade men and woman condemned by their very natures to incompetency and failure automat- ically engender poverty, invite exploitation, and drag down others just above them in the social scale. We thus see that our social ills are largely the product of degeneracy, and that the elimination of degeneracy would do more than anything else to solve them. But degeneracy can be eliminated only by eliminating the degenerate. And this is a racial, not a social matter. No merely social measures can ever touch the heart of the problem. In fact, they tend to increase its gravity; because, aiming as they do to improve existing indi- viduals, they carry along multitudes of the unfit and enable them to propagate more largely of their kind. If, then, society is ever to rid itself of its worst bur- dens, social reform must be increasingly supplemented by racial reform. Unfit individuals as well as unjust social conditions must be eliminated. To make a better world we must have better men and women. No reform of laws or institutions or economic systems will bring that better world unless it produces better men and women too. 247 Society must, therefore, grapple resolutely with the problem of degeneracy. The first step should be the pre- vention of all obvious degenerates from having children. This would mean, in practice, segregating most of them in institutions. Of course, that, in turn, would mean a great immediate expense.(1) But in the long run such out- lays would be the truest economy. We have already seen how expensive degenerates are to society. A single de- generate family like the Jukes may cost the state millions of dollars. And to these direct costs there must be added indirect costs which probably run to far larger figures. Think of the loss to the national wealth, measured in mere dollars and cents, of a sound, energetic stock ruined by an infusion of Jukes blood. Think of the immeasur- ably greater loss represented by a "tainted genius," his talents perverted from a potential social blessing into au actual social curse by the destructive action of a de- generate strain in his heredity. However, even if we leave all indirect damage out of consideration, the direct costs of degeneracy are so ob- vious and so computable that, as a cold financial proposi- tion, the flotation of public bond issues to defray the expenses of immediate, wholesale segregation would be amply justified. The consequent diminution in the ______________________________________________ (1) Even in the civilized countries only a small fraction of those who should be clearly segregated are to-day under institutional care and thus debarred from all possibility of reproduction. In the United States, for example, which ranks rather high in this respect, only 10 or 15 per cent of the obviously feeble-minded are in institutions. The reader will recall that, in the year 1915, out of approximately 600 living feeble-minded and epileptic Jukes, only three were in custodial care. To house and care for the vast hosts of defectives now at large would require from five to ten times the present number of institutions. 248 numbers of paupers, vagabonds, criminals, etc., would unquestionably enable the State to get all its money back with a handsome profit besides. (1) Of course, even the rigorous segregation of all clearly defective individuals now alive would not extinguish degeneracy. The vast "outer fringe" would for genera- tions produce large quotas of institutional recruits. But these quotas would get steadily smaller, because the centres of pollution would have been removed. And, this once done, the racial stream mould gradually purify itself. Remember that race cleansing, once done, is done for good and all. The whole weight of scientific evidence shows that degeneracy is caused, not by environment, but by heredity; that the degeneracy with which we have to deal is an old degeneracy due to taints which have been carried along in the germ-plasm for generations. If, then, this mass of degeneracy, the accumulation of centuries, could be once got rid of, it would never again recur. Sporadic degenerates might now and then be born but these isolated cases, leaving no offspring, would be of negligible importance. We thus see that a general and consistent application of those methods which even now are approved by public opinion, (2) and are already practiced on a small scale would ________________________________________________________________ (1) The cost of such institutions would not be as great as many persons imagine. The old idea of huge barracks where the inmates were kept confined is giving way to the "farm-colony" idea. Here the patients lead a healthful out-of-door life, where they are not only contented but earn much of their keep. It must be remembered that many defectives possess great physical strength and enjoy hard, muscular exertion. (2) Public opinion today generally approves the segregation of defectives. The principal difficulty thoroughgoing segregation is the matter of expense. 249 suffice to cleanse the race of its worst impurities. Of course, if no further methods were adopted, the process would be a slow one. The unsound "fringe" is so wide, the numbers of less obvious defectives above the present committable" line are so large, and their birth-rate tends to be so high that unless many of these grades also were debarred from having children, by either segregation or sterilization, (1) at least two or three generations would probably elapse before the recurrent quotas of defectives would be markedly reduced. Meanwhile, society would continue to suffer from the burdens and dangers which widespread degeneracy involves. Whether these risks are to be run is for public opinion to decide. Public opin- ion is to-day probably not ready to take more than the "first step" suggested above: the wholesale segregation of our obvious defectives. This makes some advocates of race betterment impatient or pessimistic. But it should not. Such persons should remember that the great thing is to take a real start in the right direction. When that first step is once taken, the good results will be so obvious that public opinion will soon be ready for further advances along the same line. One point which should hasten the conversion of public opinion to the eugenic programme is its profound hu- maneness. Eugenics is stern toward bad stocks, but to- ________________________________________________________________ (1) Sterilization must not be confounded with castration. The method of male sterilization now employed (vasectomy) is a trivial operation producing no functional disturbances of any sort, and leaving sexual vigor absolutely unimpaired -- except, of course, that reproduction does not ensue. Female sterilization as now as practiced involves a fairly serious operation. Other improved methods of sterilization are, however, in sight (the X-ray, etc.). 250 ward the individual it is always kind. When eugenics says "the degenerate must be eliminated," it refers, not to existing degenerates, but to their potential offspring. Those potential children, if eugenics has its way, will never be. This supreme object once accomplished, how- ever, there is every reason why the defective individual should he treated with all possible consideration. In fact, in a society animated by eugenic principles, de- generates, and inferiors generally, would he treated far better than they are to-day; because such a society would not have to fear that more charity would spell more in- feriors. It would also be more inclined to a kindly atti- tude because it would realize that defects are due to heredity and that bad germ-plasm can be neither punished nor reformed. Furthermore, the very conversion of public opinion to the eugenic view-point would itself tend powerfully to purify the race by voluntary action. Legal measures like segregation and sterilization would apply in prac- tice only to the most inferior elements, whose lack of in- telligence and sell-control render them incapable of ap- preciating the interests of society and thus make legal compulsion necessary. The higher grades of unsoundness would not be directly affected. Right here, however, the pressure of enlightened public opinion would come into play. Later on we shall consider the full implications of the development in the general population of a true racial consciousness -- what may be termed a "eugenic con- science." Suffice it here to say that the existence of such as attitude would eliminate the higher grades of mental 251 defect by voluntary action as rapidly as the acuter grades were being eliminated by legal action. In a society ani- mated by a eugenic conscience the begetting of unsound children would be regarded with horror, and public opin- ion would instinctively set up strong social taboos which would effectively restrain all except reckless and anti- social individuals -- who, of course, would be restrained by law. Such social taboos would not, however, mean wholesale celibacy. In the first place, a large proportion of those persons who carry hereditary taints in their germ-plasm carry them in latent form. These latent or "recessive" taints do their bearers personally no harm, and in most cases will not appear in their children unless the bearers marry persons carrying like taints. By avoiding unions with these particular people, not only will sound children be reasonably assured by wise matings, but the taints themselves will ordinarily be bred out of the stock in a couple of generations, and the germ-plasm will thus be purified. Furthermore, even those persons who carry taints which make parenthood inadvisable need not be debarred from marriage. The sole limitation would be that they should have no children. And this will be per- fectly feasible, because, when public opinion acquires the racial view-point, The present silly and vicious atti- tude toward birth control will be abandoned, and un- desirable children will not be conceived. By the combination of legal, social, and individual action above described, the problems of degeneracy and inferiority, attacked both from above and from below, 252 would steadily diminish, and the racial stream would be as steadily purified. The point to be emphasized is that this can be effected almost wholly by a broader and more intelligent application of processes already operating and already widely sanctioned by public opinion. Segrega- tion of defectives, appreciation of racial principles, wise marriage selection, birth control: these are the main items in the programme of race purification. This pro- gramme is thus seen to be strictly evolutionary and es- sentially conservative. The first steps are so simple and so obvious that they can be taken without any notable change in our social or legal standards, and without any real offence to intelligent public opinion. Further steps can safely be left to the future, and there is good reason to believe that those steps will be taken far sooner than is generally imagined, because the good results of the first steps will be so apparent and so convincing. Such, briefly, is the process of race cleansing known as "negative" eugenics. Many earnest believers in race betterment are inclined to minimize eugenics', "nega- tive" aspect. Such persons declare that the vital prob- lem is the increase of superiors, and that the "positive" pluses of the eugenic programme must, therefore, be equally emphasized from the start. Now in this I think they are mistaken. Of course, the increase of superior types is an absolute prerequisite to the perfecting of the race. But race perfecting is a much more difficult matter than race cleansing and involves measures for most of which public opinion is not yet pre- pared. Also, besides questions of expediency, there is 253 the more fundamental point that race cleansing will do more than anything else to assure that social and intel- lectual stability which will constitute the sure foundation on which race building can take place. In considering the problems of degeneracy and in- feriority, many eugenicists are apt to fix their attention upon the so-called "defective classes," and to regard them as a separate problem. This is, of course, not so. The defective classes are not sundered from the rest of society; they are merely the acutest sufferers from de- fects which, in lesser degree, spread broadcast through the general population. These defects, continually spreading and infecting sound stocks, set up strains, dis- cords, and limitations of character and personality of every kind and description. Consequently, the elimina- tion of morbidity, of weakness, of unintelligence, would work wonders not only in harmonizing and stabilizing individual personalities, but also in harmonizing and stabilizing society itself. Picture a society where the overwhelming majority of the population possessed sound minds in sound bodies; where the "tainted genius" and the "unemployable" wastrel were alike virtually unknown. Even though the bulk of the population were still of mediocre intelligence, the gain for both stability and progress would be enor- mous. The elimination of neurotic, irrational, vicious personalities, weak-brained and weak-willed, would ren- der social cataclysms impossible; because even those who could not think far would tend to think straight, and would realize that social disruption could not really bene- 254 fit any one who stood to gain by social order and progress. Of course, the mediocre masses would be decidedly con- servative and would hold back progress; but their con- servatism would be much more leavened by common sense, cooperation, and public spirit than is now the case, and constructive proposals would thus get a fairer hearing and stand a better chance of adoption. Now when we contrast this picture with our present- day world, disorganized, seething, threatened with down- right chaos, I submit that some such stabilization as I have described must first be attained before we can de- vote ourselves to creating a super race. Our particular job is stopping the prodigious spread of inferiority which is now going on. We may be losing our best stocks, but we are losing them much more slowly than we are multi- plying our worst. Our study of differential birth-rates (1) showed us that if these remain unchanged our most in- telligent stocks will diminish from one-third to two-thirds in the next hundred years; it also showed that our least intelligent stocks will increase from six to tenfold in the same time. Obviously, it is this prodigious spawning of inferiors which must at all costs be prevented if society is to be saved from disruption and dissolution. Race cleansing is apparently the only thing that can stop it. Therefore, race cleansing must be our first concern. Of course, this does not mean that race building should be neglected. On the contrary, we should be thinking along those lines. Only, for the immediate present, we should concentrate our energies upon the ____________________________________________________ (1) In Chapter III 255 pressing problem of degeneracy until we have actually in operation legal measures which will fairly promise to get it under control. Meanwhile, the very fact that we are thinking eugenically at all will of itself produce im- portant positive results. These may not take the form of legal enactments, but they will be powerfully reflected in changed ideals and standards of social conduct. The development of that "eugenic conscience" which, as we have already seen, promises to play so important a part in the elimination of the higher grades of degeneracy, will also impel the well-endowed to raise larger families, prefer children to luxuries, and discriminate between the high cost of living and the cost of high living. People will think less about "rights" and more about "duties," will come to consider their race much as they do their country, and will make sacrifices for posterity such as they now make for patriotism. In fact, such an attitude will soon render public opinion ripe for considering definite eugenic measures of a con- structive character. One of these measures, which is already foreshadowed, is a remission of taxation propor- tionate to the number of children in families.(1) Later on society may offer rewards for the production of desirable children. Such action will, however, have to be very carefully safeguarded. Any indiscriminate subsidizing of large families regardless of their racial value would be extremely disastrous. It would mean merely another _________________________________________________________ (1) Far example: The United States Federal Income Tax grants a larger exemption to married than to single persons, and allows further deductions for "dependents," including, of course, minor children. 256 tax burden upon the thrifty and capable for the stimu- lation of the unfit -- who need no stimulating! 0nly where the racial superiority of the couples in question is clearly apparent, as shown by proven ability, pscycholog- ical tests, and sound heredity, should such subsidies be granted. These and a few other kindred matters are probably the only definitely constructive legal measures for which public opinion is even partially prepared. But there is nothing discouraging in that. The great thing, as al- ready stated, is to get people thinking racially. With the development of a "eugenic conscience" and the curb- ing of degeneracy, plans for race building will almost formulate themselves. There is the inestimable advan- tage of a movement based on the evolutionary principle and inspired by the scientific spirit. Such a movement does not, like a scheme for utopia, have to spring forth in detailed perfection from the imagination of its creator like Minerva from the brow of Zeus. On the contrary, it can evolve, steadily but surely, moving along many lines, testing its own soundness at every step, and win- ning favor by proofs instead of promises. "There are several routes on which one can proceed with the confidence that, if no one of them is the main road, at least it is likely to lead into the latter at some time. Fortunately, eugenics is, paradoxical as it may seem, able to advance on all these paths at once; for it proposes no definite goal, it sets up no one standard to which it would make the human race conform. Taking man as it finds him, it proposes to multiply all the types 257 that have been found by past experience or present reason to be of most value to society. Not only would it multi-- ply them in numbers, but also in efficiency, in capacity to serve the race. "By so doing, it undoubtedly fulfils the requirements of that popular philosophy which holds the aim of so- ciety to be the greatest happiness for the greatest num- ber, or, more definitely, the increase of the totality of human happiness to cause not to exist those who would be doomed from birth to give only unhappiness to them- selves and those about them; to increase the number of those in whom useful physical and mental traits are well developed; to bring about an increase in the number of energetic altruists and a decrease in the number of the antisocial and defective; surely such an undertaking will come nearer to increasing the happiness of the greatest number than will any temporary social palliative, any ointment for incurable social wounds." (1) If social stability can be maintained and a cataclysm averted, there is every reason to believe that our world will soon take a decided turn for the better. The new biological revelation is already accepted by large num- bers of thinking men and women all over the civilized world, and when it becomes firmly fixed in the popular consciousness it will work a literally amazing transforma- tion in the ordering of the world's affairs. For race betterment is such an intensely practical, matter! When peoples come to realize that the quality of the population is the source of all their prosperity, ______________________________________________________ (1) Popenoe and Johnson, Applied Eugenics, p. 165 258 progress, security, and even existence; when they realize that a single genius be worth more in actual dollars than a dozen gold-mines, while, conversely, racial de- cadence spells material impoverishment and cultural delay; when such things are really believed, we shall see eugenics actually molding social programmes and polit- ical policies. And, as already stated, there is much evidence to show that this may happen sooner than is now imagined. Many believers in race betterment are unduly pessimistic. Of course, their pessimism is quite natural. Realizing as they do the supreme importance of the eugenic idea, its progress seems to them unconscionably slow. To the student of history, however, its progress seems extraor- dinarily rapid. Only twenty years ago eugenics was virtually unknown outside of a few scientific circles. To- day it has won a firm footing with the intellectual elite of every civilized land and has gained the interested attention of public opinion. History shows that when an idea has reached this point it tends to spread with ever-accelerating rapidity. In my opinion, then, eu- genists, whether laboring in the abstract field of research for the further elucidation of the idea or in engaged in en- lightening public opinion, may one and all look forward hopefully to the operation of a sort of "law of increasing returns" that will yield results as surprising as they are beneficient as the next few decades roll on. The one deadly peril to the cause of race betterment is the possibility of social disruption by the antisocial elements -- instinctively hostile to eugenics as they are 259 to every other phase of progressive civilization. If this peril can be averted, the triumph of race betterment is practically certain, because eugenics can "deliver the goods." When public opinion once realizes this, public opinion will be not merely willing but anxious that the goods be delivered. When society realizes the incalculable value of superior stocks, it will take precious good care that its racial treasures are preserved and fostered. Superior stock will then be cherished, not only for its high average value, but because it is also the seed-bed from which alone can arise those rare personalities of genius who tower like mountain peaks above the human plain and to whose creative influence progress is primarily due The people which fosters its superior stocks will be thus twice blessed. In the first place, such stocks will produce, generation after generation, an unfailing supply of men and women of ability, of energy, of civic worth, who will leaven society and advance every field of hu- man endeavor. And, in addition to all this, those same stocks will from time to time produce a "genius" -- one of those infinitely rare but infinitely precious minds which change man's destiny and whose names reverberate athwart the ages. "Every race requires leaders. These leaders appear from time to time, and enough is known about eu- genics to show that their appearance is frequently pre- dictable, not accidental. It is possible to have them appear more frequently; and, in addition, to raise the level of the whole race, making the entire nation happier and more useful. These are the great tasks of eugenics. 260 America needs more families like that old Puritan strain which is one of eugenics' familiar examples: At their head stands Jonathan Edwards, and behind him an array of his descendants numbering, in the year 1900, 1,394, of whom 1,295 were college graduates; 13 presidents of our greatest colleges; 65 professors in col- leges, besides many principals of other important edu- cational institutions; 60 physicians, many of whom were eminent; 100 and more clergymen, missionaries, or theo- logical professors; 75 were officers in the army and navy; 60 prominent authors and writers, by whom 135 books of merit were written and published and 18 important periodicals edited, 33 American States and several for- eign countries have profited by the beneficent influences of their eminent activity; 100 and more were lawyers, of whom one was our most eminent professor of law; 30 were judges; 80 held public office, of whom one was vice-president of the United States; 3 were United States senators; several were governors, members of Congress, framers of State constitutions, mayors of cities, and minis- ters to foreign courts; one was president of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company; 15 railroads, many banks, insurance companies, and large industrial enterprises have been indebted to their management. Almost if not every department of social progress, and of the public weal has felt the impulse of this healthy and long-lived family. It is not known that any one of them was ever convicted of crime." (1) Such is the record of the Jonathan Edwards strain. ____________________________________________________ (1) Popenoe and Johnson, pp. 161-162 261 Now compare it with the Jukes strain? (1) Edwards vs. Jukes! Faced by such evidence, can public opinion, re- main much longer blind to the enormous innate differ- ences between human stocks? The Edwards family record illustrates a principle of vital importance: the infinite diversity of ability. Many ill-informed or prejudiced critics have asserted that eu- genics visualizes a specific type of "superman" and wants to "breed for points." This is arrant nonsense. No real eugenist wants to do anything of the sort, for the very good reason that the eugenist realizes better than any one else that the fundamental quality of superior germ- plasm is its generalized creative urge -- expressing itself in a multitude of specific activities. What eugenics wants is "more physically sound men and women with greater ability in any valuable way. Whatever the actual goal of evolution may be, it can hardly be assumed by any except the professional pes- simist that a race made up of such men and women is going to be handicapped by their presence. "The correlation of abilities is as well attested as any fact in psychology. Those who decry eugenics on the ground that it is impossible to establish any 'standard of perfection,' since society needs many diverse kinds of people, are overlooking this fact. Any plan which in- creases the production of children in able families of vari- ous types will thereby produce more ability of all kinds since if family is particularly gifted in one way, it is likely to be gifted above the average in several other desirable ways. _______________________________________________________ (1) See Chapter III. 262 "Eugenics sets up no specific superman as a type to which the rest of the race must be made to conform. It is not looking forward to the cessation of its work in a eugenic millennium. It is a perpetual process, which seeks only to raise the level of the race by the production of fewer people with physical and mental defects, and more people with physical and mental excellences. Such a race should be able to perpetuate itself, to subdue na- ture, to improve its environment progressively; its' mem- bers should be happy and productive. To establish such a goal seems justified by the knowledge of evolution which is now available; and to make progress toward it is pos- sible." (1) The eugenic ideal is thus seen to be an ever-perfecting super race. Not the "superman" of Nietzsche -- that brilliant yet baleful vision of a master caste, blooming like a gorgeous but parasitic orchid on a rotting trunk of servile degradation; but a super race, cleansing itself throughout by the elimination of its defects, and raising itself throughout by the cultivation of its qualities. Such a race will imply a new civilization. Of course, even under the most favorable circumstances, neither this race nor this civilization can come today or to-mor- row -- perhaps not for many generations; because, like all really enduring creations, they will be the products of a progressive, evolutionary process, not of flaming revolution or numbing reaction. Yet this evolutionary process, however gradual, must ultimately produce changes almost beyond our dreams. _____________________________________________ (1) Popenoe and Johnson, p. 166. 263 Every phase of human existence will be transformed: laws and customs, arts and sciences, ideas and ideals, even man's conception of the Infinite. How shall we characterize this society of the future? I believe it may be best visualized by one word: Neo- Aristocracy. The ideal of race perfection combines and harmonizes into a higher synthesis the hitherto conflict- ing ideas of aristocracy and democracy. I am here re- ferring not to the specific political aspects which those ideas have at various times assumed, but to their broader aspects as philosophies of life and conduct. Viewed in this fundamental light, we see democracy based upon the concept of human similarity, and aris- tocracy based upon the concept of human differentiation. Of course, both concepts are, in a sense, valid. Compared to the vast differences between mankind and other life forms, human differences sink to insignificance and mankind appears a substantial unity. Compared with each other, the wide differences between men themselves stand out, and mankind becomes an almost infinite di- versity. If these distinctions had been clearly recognized, de- mocracy and aristocracy would have been viewed as parts of a larger truth, and there might have been no deep antagonism between them. Unfortunately, both concepts were formulated long ago, when science was in its infancy and when the laws of life were virtually un- known. Accordingly, both were founded largely on false notions: democracy upon the fallacy of natural equality; aristocracy upon the fallacy of artificial inequality. 264 Thus based on error, both democracy and aristocracy worked badly in practice: democracy tending to pro- duce a destructive, levelling equality; aristocracy tend- ing to produce an unjust oppressive inequality. This merely increased the antagonism between the two sys- tem's; because one was continually invoked to cure the harm wrought by the other, and because social ills were ascribed exclusively to the defeated party, instead of being diagnosed as a joint product. For the past half century the democratic idea has gained an unparalleled ascendancy in the world, while the aristocratic idea has been correspondingly discredited. Indeed, so complete has been democracy's triumph that it has been accorded a superstitious veneration, and any criticism of its fundamental perfection is widely regarded as a sort of lese-majeste or even heresy. Now, this is an unhealthy state of affairs, because the democratic idea is not perfect but is a mixture of truth with errors like "natural equality" which modern science has proved to be dearly unsound. Such a situation is unworthy of an age claiming to be inspired by that scien- tific spirit whose basic quality is unflinching love of truth. In a scientific age no idea should be sacrosanct, no facts above analysis and criticism. Of course, criticism and analysis should be measured and scientific -- not mere outbursts of emotion. Traditional ideas should receive just consideration, with due regard for the fact that they must contain much truth to have established and maintained themselves. In like manner, new ideas should also receive just consideration so long as their 265 advocates strive to persuade people and do not try to knock their brains out. But, new or old, no idea should be made a fetich -- and democracy is no exception to the rule. As an idea, democracy should be thoughtfully, even respectfully, considered, as something which con- tains a deal of truth and which has done much good in the world. As a fetich, democracy has no more virtue than Mumbo-Jumbo or a West African ju-ju. The fact is that modern science is unquestionably bringing the democratic dogma under review. And it is high time that scientists said so frankly. Nothing would be more laughable, if it were not so pathetic, than the way scientists interlard their writings (which clearly imply criticism of the democratic philosophy) with asides like: "Of course, this isn't really against democracy, you know." Now these little pinches of incense cast upon the demo- cratic altar may keep near-heretics in good standing. But it is unworthy of the scientific spirit, and (what is more important) it seriously retards progress. Genuine progress results from combining old and new truth into a higher synthesis which, bound by inherent affinity, will, like a chemical combination, "stay put." Arbitrarily coupling truth and error, however, results in something which compares, not to chemical synthesis, but to a me- chanical mixture about as stable as oil and water, which will be forever separating and must be continually shaken up. Obviously, out of such a mixture no new synthesis can ever come. When, therefore, believers in race betterment are ac- 266 ccused of being "undemocratic," they should answer: "Right you are! Science, especially biology, has dis- closed the falsity of certain ideas like 'natural equality,' and the omnipotence of environment, on which the demo- cratic concept is largely based. We aim to take the sound elements in both the traditional democratic and aristo- cratic philosophies and combine them in a higher syn- thesis -- a new philosophy worthy of the race and the civilization that we visualize." Of course, it may be asked why, if this new philosophy is such a synthesis, it might not be called "Aristo-democ- racy," or even "Neo-Democracy." To which I would answer that I have no basic objection, provided we all agree on the facts. Labels matter comparatively little. It is the things labelled which count. Yet, after all, labels do have a certain value. If they mean precisely what they say, this in turn means exact information as to the facts and hence avoids the pos- sibility of unsound reasoning based on faulty premises. Now I believe that, for the time being at any rate, the new philosophy should he called "Neo-Aristocracy"; be- cause it involves first of all the disestablishment of the democratic cult and the rehabilitation of the discredited aristocratic idea. For, despite its many unsound ele- ments, the aristocratic idea does contain something en- nobling which must be preserved and incorporated into the philosophy of the morrow. Today, therefore, the value of the aristocratic principle should he emphasized as a healthy intellectual reaction against the overweening preponderance of the democratic idea. Generations 267 hence, when the elimination of degeneracy, and even of mediocrity shall have produced something like generalized superiority, the approach to real equality between men will have become so evident that their philosophy of life may better be termed "Neo-Democracy." Other times, other fashions. Let us not usurp the future. One last point should be carefully noted. When I speak of Neo-Aristocracy as applicable to-day, I refer to outlook, not practice. At present no basic political changes are either possible or desirable. Certainly, any thought of our existing social upper classes as "Neo- Aristocracies" would be, to put it mildly, a bad joke. We have already seen that, while these classes do un- questionably contain the largest percentage of superior strains, they are yet loaded down with mediocrities and are peppered with degenerates and inferiors. We must absolutely banish the notion that Neo-Aristocracy will perpetuate that cardinal vice of traditional aristocracy. -- caste. Classes there probably will be; but these classes, however defined their functions, will be extremely fluid as regards the individuals who compose them. No true superior, wherever born, will be denied admission to the highest class; no person, whenever born, can stay in a class unless he measures up to specifications. The attainment of Neo-Aristocracy implies a long political evolution, the exact course of which is probably unpredictable. However a recognition of the goal and of the fundamental principles involved should help us on our way. That way will assuredly be long. At best, it will prob- 268 ably take many generations. It may take many cen- turies. Who knows whether our present hopes are not dreams; whether the forces of chaos will not disrupt civilization and plunge & us into a "Dark Age." Well, even so, there would be left -- faith. For, may we not believe that those majestic laws of life which now stand revealed will no more pass utterly from human ken than have other great discoveries like the sowing of grain and the control of fire? And, therefore, may we not hope that, if not to-day, then in some better time, the race will insure its own regeneration? To doubt this would be to deny that mysterious, primal urge which, raising man from the beast, lifts his eyes to the stars.